Children and Healthcare

Childhood Injuries, Poisons, and Burns

Minor Cuts, Scrapes, and Skin Wounds

Abrasions
An abrasion is a superficial rub or wearing off of the skin, usually caused by a scrape or a "brush burn." Abrasions are usually minor injuries that can be treated at home.
Blisters in Children
Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first-aid, and treatment
Bruises
A bruise is a collection of blood underneath the skin that is caused by trauma to an area of the body. Sometimes, enough bleeding occurs so that a lump also forms.
Lacerations Without Stitches
A laceration is tear or opening in the skin caused by an injury. Some lacerations are small and need only minor treatment at home.
Lacerations With Stitches
Stitches, also called sutures, are special types of thread that hold the edges of a wound together while it heals.
Puncture Wounds
A puncture wound is a deep wound made by a sharp object. This type of wound may become infected easily because dirt and germs are carried deep into the tissues.
Small Cuts and Scrapes
Wash the cut area well with soap and water, but do not scrub the wound. A dirty cut or scrape that is not thoroughly cleaned can cause scarring.
Splinters
A splinter is a sharp sliver of wood, glass, or other debris that is lodged underneath the skin. Removal of small, superficial splinters can usually be done at home.

Superficial Injuries to the Face and Head

Superficial Injuries to the Face and Head
Children are more likely to end up with a cut or scrape on the head or face. One reason is that children's sense of balance isn't completely adjusted.
Cuts and Wounds of the Face
Most minor cuts or wounds to the face can be handled at home with simple first-aid treatment.
Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Airway
Children usually place things in their ears because they are bored, curious, or copying other children. Some objects may cause no symptoms, but other objects, such as food and insects, may cause pain in the ear, redness, or drainage.
Insects in the Ear
Don't attempt to remove the insect by poking it with a cotton swab. This may push the insect farther into the ear or cause damage to the middle ear and eardrum.
Cuts and Wounds of the Mouth and Lips
The gums, tongue, and lips have a rich blood supply and when cuts occur, these areas may bleed excessively.
Injuries to the Teeth
The injury may be to a primary tooth or a permanent tooth. A tooth can be cracked, chipped, or totally detached from its socket.
Cuts and Wounds of the External Ear
Any wound to the ear cartilage that is more than just a superficial cut or laceration should be seen by a doctor to decide if stitches are needed.
Cuts and Wounds of the Nose
Most minor nose wounds can be handled at home, but a wound or bruise that also involves one or both eyes requires immediate medical attention.
Nosebleeds
Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.

Eye Trauma

Avoiding Eye Injuries in Children
Children should wear protective eyewear during sports and recreational activities. In the classroom, they should wear eye protection when doing lab experiments.
Corneal Abrasions
A corneal abrasion is a scratch or injury to the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye. This is a very common occurrence in children.
Chemical Burns of the Eye
A chemical burn occurs when a child gets any type of chemical in his or her eye. This is a medical emergency, and the child should receive immediate medical care.
Bruising or Black Eye (Ecchymosis)
A black eye should be seen by a doctor to make sure no injury has occurred to the eye itself. Most black eyes heal completely and do not cause any damage.
Fractures of the Orbit
The orbit is the bony structure around the eye. A blow to the face can break one or more of these bones and can result in severe eye injury and damage.
Eyelid Lacerations
Eyelid lacerations are cuts to the eyelid caused by trauma. Your child's doctor will examine the eye closely to make sure no damage has occurred to the eye itself.
Foreign Bodies in the Eye
The foreign object may be in the conjunctiva—the thin membrane that covers the actual eye—or in the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.
Blood in the Eye (Hyphema)
Symptoms of hyphema include blood visible in the eye, usually following some type of trauma. Immediate medical care is necessary.
First-Aid for the Eyes
A child with a foreign object in the eye should not rub the eye. An eye wash may be able to flush the object out of the eye. If that doesn't work, seek medical attention immediately.
Anatomy of the Eye
The structures of the eye include the cornea, iris, pupil, macula, retina, and the optic nerve.
Cosmetic Safety for Adolescent Contact Lens Wearers
Cosmetics are among some of the most common sources of problems for contact lens wearers. Misusing cosmetics can lead to severe adverse reactions.

Muscle and Joint Injuries

Sprains and Strains in Children
Strains, sprains, and bruises make up the majority of sports injuries. Treatment for a strain or sprain depends on the child's age and the extent of the injury.
Nursemaid's Elbow
Nursemaid's elbow occurs when the radius—one of the bones in the forearm—slips out of place from where it normally attaches to the elbow joint.
Sprains, Strains, Breaks: What’s the Difference?
If you've sprained your ankle, you know what pain is. But maybe that "sprain" was a "strain" or possibly even a "break." The amount of pain in each case can be virtually equal.
Avoiding Joint Injuries
Common injuries include a twisted ankle, sprained wrist, overextended elbow and damaged knee ligaments. Fortunately, you can take steps to help prevent joint damage.
Tennis Elbow
Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury of the elbow that occurs when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

Animal and Human Bites

Facts About Animal Bites
Whether the bite is from a family pet or an animal in the wild, scratches and bites can become infected and cause scarring. Animals can also carry diseases that can be transmitted through a bite.
How to Keep Bugs From Bugging You
Although most insects are just nuisances, some can threaten our health.
Treatment for Dog and Cat Bites and Scratches
For a superficial bite from a healthy household pet, wash the wound with soap and water under pressure from a faucet for at least five minutes.
What You Can Do About Dog Bites
Dogs are responsible for 85 to 90 percent of all animal bites. But, many incidents can be avoided.
Keep Kids Safe from Bugs
Many products seek to prevent bug bites, but products containing DEET (usually listed on labels as N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) are quite effective.
Rabies in Children
Rabies occurs mainly in skunks, raccoons, foxes, coyotes, and bats. In some areas, these wild animals infect domestic cats, dogs, and livestock.
Cat Scratch Disease in Children
Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. Young kittens younger than a year old are more likely to scratch, increasing the likelihood of infection.
Treatment for Human Bites
Human bite wounds are more likely to become infected than dog or cat bites. A doctor should check any human bite that breaks the skin.
Why Children Bite
A young child may bite out of frustration or when under stress. Biting may also be an attempt to gain power—or just a way of exploring the world.

Insect Bites

Keep Kids Safe from Bugs
Many products seek to prevent bug bites, but products containing DEET (usually listed on labels as N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) are quite effective.
Children and Fleas, Mites, and Chiggers
Fleas, mites, and chiggers often bite humans, but aren't poisonous. It's sometimes difficult to assess which type of insect caused the bite, or if the rash is caused by poison ivy or other skin conditions.
Tick Bites
Ticks attach themselves to the scalp, behind the ear, in the armpit and groin, and also between fingers and toes. Tick bites often occur at night and are more common in the spring and summer months.
Lyme Disease in Children
Lyme disease is the leading cause of all insect-borne illness in the United States. It is a year-round problem, although April through October is considered tick season.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Children
This infection is caused by a tick bite. Common symptoms are fever and a non-itchy rash that usually starts on the hands, arms, feet, and legs seven to 10 days after the bite.
Spider Bites in Children
In the United States, two spiders that can cause serious problems are the black widow and the brown recluse spiders. Both of these spiders are found in warm climates.
Insect Stings and Allergic Reactions
For most children, the reaction to a sting is short-lived, with redness and swelling followed by pain and itching. For others, however, the allergic reaction to an insect sting can be life threatening.
Snake Bites and Children
Treat all bites as if they were from a venomous snake and get your child to a hospital emergency room as quickly as possible.

Poisons

Facts About Poisons
About 60 percent of poisonings in children involve items other than medicines—plants, cleaning products, cosmetics, pesticides, paints, and solvents.
First Aid for Poisonings
Sometimes accidental poisonings can be treated in the home under the direction of a poison control center or your child's doctor. At other times, emergency medical care is necessary.
Childproof Your Home for Poisons
Always remember that ordinary products you use each day around the home can become dangerous poisons in the hands of a child.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children
Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. It is the most common cause of accidental poisoning-related deaths and is often called "the silent killer."
Lead Poisoning in Children
Lead poisoning is a totally preventable disease. Children ages 1 to 3 who live in low-income housing built before 1978 are especially at risk.
Mushroom Poisoning in Children
Early symptoms of mushroom poisoning include stomach cramps, vomiting, and watery or bloody diarrhea. If your child has any of these symptoms, call your child's doctor immediately.

Burns

About Burns

Burns in Children
Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment
Anatomy of the Skin
The skin is the body's largest organ. It serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.
Burns Overview
Burns are a type of injury caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Most burn accidents occur at home.

Types of Burns

Classification and Treatment of Burns
Burns are classified as first-, second-, or third-degree, depending on how deep and severe they penetrate the skin's surface.
First-Degree Burns
First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. The burn site is red, painful, and dry, with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example.
Second-Degree Burns (Partial Thickness Burns)
Second-degree burns involve the outer and middle layers of skin. The burn site appears red and blistered, and may be swollen and painful.
Third-Degree Burns
This type of burn destroys the top two layers of skin. Treatment for third-degree burns depends on the amount of body surface area affected.
Preventing Burn Injuries
Here are safety tips: Periodically, check electrical plugs and cords for dirt or fraying. When cooking with hot oil, keep your child a safe distance from the stove. Teach your child to stay away from lighters and matches.
Chemical Burns
Chemical burns can occur when strong acids or alkalies come in contact with the skin and/or the eyes.
Heat or Thermal Burns
A heat-induced or thermal burn can occur when the skin comes in contact with any heat source, such as a cooking pan, an iron, a fire, a hot surface, or a hot, scalding liquid.
Electrical Burns
Electrical burns occur when a child comes in contact with electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

Care of Burns

Nutrition and Burns
A child who has been burned needs additional calories and protein to help him or her heal and grow.
Burns: Symptom Management
Most children with burns have pain, which can be controlled with medication. They also usually experience itching at some point during the healing process.
Preventing Scars and Contractures
Most second- and third-degree burns cause scarring. Physical therapists will work with your child to prevent or reduce scarring.
Home Wound Care
Your child may come home with unhealed areas that still require dressing changes. You will be instructed on how to change dressings before you leave the hospital.
If Your Child Has Difficulty Adjusting
Agitated behavior such as crying, sleep disturbances and nightmares, and repeated episodes of sadness are signs that your child may be having difficulty coping with stress.
Coping Emotionally
Your child's burn care and emotional recovery will continue when you leave the hospital. Along with the excitement, you and your child may also feel uneasy about what will happen next.
When to Call Your Child's Doctor
These are reasons to call your child's doctor: signs of infection, uncontrollable itching, a scar that cracks open or splits.

Disease Prevention

Teaching Kids to Wash Their Hands
It's hard enough to get grownups to wash up. Only two-thirds of adults wash their hands after they use the restroom, studies show.
5 Ways to Avoid Colds and the Flu
You don't want to spend this winter battling a runny nose, a nagging cough or a fever. Here's what to do.
Pets and Infectious Diseases in Children
One way to prevent the spread of disease from your pet: Feed your pet a balanced diet and avoid having your pet eat raw foods or drink out of the toilet.
Handwashing
Use warm water to wet your hands, then apply soap. Rub your hands together for at least 10 seconds. Rinse thoroughly to remove all soap.

Immunizations

Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP)
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are serious illnesses. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children to provide protection against all three diseases.
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR)
The MMR vaccine is given in two doses—at 12 to 15 months and at 4 to 6 years, or at least one month after the first dose.
Polio (IPV)
The poliovirus destroys the nervous system, causing paralysis. Today, polio is extremely rare in the United States because of the polio vaccine. It's still common in other countries, though, so children still need to be immunized.
Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib)
Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.
Varicella (Chickenpox)
Chickenpox is a very common childhood disease. It is usually mild, but can be serious, especially in young infants and adults.
Pneumococcus
Pneumococcus bacteria can cause serious illness in children, including pneumonia, infection in the blood, and meningitis.
Hepatitis B (HBV) in Children
An infant or young child who contracts hepatitis B is at greater risk of staying infected with the virus and of having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.
Childhood Immunizations
Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.
Why Childhood Immunizations Are Important
Vaccinations not only protect your child from deadly diseases such as polio, tetanus, and diphtheria, but they also keep other children safe by eliminating or greatly decreasing dangerous diseases that used to spread from child to child.

Preventing Childhood Obesity

Weight Management and Adolescents
For overweight children 7 and older, the initial goal is to keep them from gaining more weight. Changes in eating habits and exercise are gradually introduced to trim pounds.
Determining Body Mass Index for Teens
Although it is not a perfect measure, BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your teen's body is composed of fat.
Cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and Triglycerides in Children and Adolescents
The cholesterol in blood comes from two sources: the foods your teen eats and his or her liver. The liver, however, makes all of the cholesterol your teen's body needs.
Children and Cholesterol
If you, your parents or your parents' siblings had a heart attack before age 55, you should have your child's cholesterol tested.
Healthy Eating During Adolescence
Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.
Exercise and Adolescents
Teens need at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days for good health and fitness and for healthy weight during growth.
Exercise Goals for Kids
How much activity should your child get? What kinds of activity are important? Find out here.
For Obese Teens, Surgery Is the Last Resort
Extreme obesity plagues more than a million teens and young adults, experts estimate. What's a parent to do?
Diagnosing and Evaluating Heart Disease in Children
Detailed information on diagnosing and evaluating heart disease in children
Prevention of Heart Disease Starts in Childhood
You may think of heart disease as a problem for adults, not your young children. But diet and exercise habits started in childhood can begin a lifetime of heart health, or a lifetime of heart damage.

When Your Child Is Sick

Caring for Your Sick Child
You should always call a doctor if you have any doubts or questions about how to take care of your sick child at home.
Fever in Children
When your child has a fever, the body resets its thermostat at a higher temperature. This helps the body fight off invading microorganisms.
When Your Child Refuses to Go to School
School avoidance syndrome, as described by doctors, is the most common cause of vague, unverifiable symptoms in school-age children and is triggered by stress, says a clinical professor of pediatrics.
Is Your Child Too Sick for Day Care or School?
The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Public Health Association have guidelines that can help you make up your mind.
Help for a Child with a Cold
You want to help a child with cold symptoms feel better, but choosing among countless over-the-counter (OTC) cold medicines can be daunting. Here are some guidelines that can help.
Psychological Complications of Chronic Illness
Adolescence is a stressful time of life even for physically healthy teens. Chronic illness further complicates adolescent development.
Appendicitis: Children and Teens
Appendicitis, an infection of the appendix, is the most common reason for a child to need emergency abdominal surgery.
Kids' Health Concerns Ease with Age
When children are young, it's normal for them to have a variety of childhood illnesses and problems. Most go away as the child gets older.
Why Children Get Carsick -- and What to Do
Carsickness isn't really about the car. It's about the brain's ability to interpret a message based on what it senses.
Measuring a Baby's Temperature
Most physicians recommend taking a baby's temperature rectally, by placing a thermometer in the baby's anus. This method is accurate and gives a quick reading of the baby's internal temperature.
Home Care for Children with Sickle Cell Disease
Although a child who has sickle cell disease should be under a doctor’s care, parents can do many things at home to minimize symptoms and maintain the child’s health.
School-Based Occupational Therapy
School-based occupational therapy is a type of help given to children at school to help them be more successful.

When Your Child Has Surgery

Before Surgery

What to Do if Your Child Needs Surgery
If having surgery makes you nervous, imagine how it can seem for a child. By helping the youngster anticipate and face those fears, you can ease the trauma and smooth the way for a quicker, easier recovery.
Easing a Child’s Fears and Anxieties About Medical Procedures
Before your child undergoes any medical treatment, it is critical for you to have a full understanding of the diagnosis, procedure and options available. This will help you manage the fears and anxieties your child may feel.
Types of Surgery for Children
Surgery can be classified as major or minor, depending on the seriousness of the illness, the parts of the body affected, the complexity of the operation, and the expected recovery time.
Methods of Surgery
Minimally invasive surgery is a relatively new approach that allows the patient to recuperate faster with less pain. Not all conditions are suitable for this type of surgery.
The Hospital Setting
Many surgeries performed on children are done as an outpatient. With minor surgeries, your child will return to the outpatient surgery center after spending the required time in the recovery room.
Pediatric Appendectomy
A pediatric appendectomy is a surgery that's performed to remove a child's appendix. The appendix is a small pouch that's attached to the large intestine on the lower right side of the abdomen.
CT Abdominal Scans in Children
A CT abdominal scan is a type of medical exam that uses X-ray equipment and a computer to make many cross-sectional images of the abdomen.

Preoperative Management

Preoperative Visit with the Surgeon
This is the time to ask questions: What are the expected results? What are the possible risks and complications? How long will the surgery take?
Hospital Visit / Preoperative Clinic
Touring the hospital before surgery can help your child see the sights, sounds, and events he or she will experience the day of surgery. It is a non-threatening, often reassuring, way to learn about the hospital.
Latex Allergy
Symptoms of latex allergy include watery or itchy eyes, wheezing, hives, flushing or a skin rash, itching, or swelling.
Informed Consent
You will be asked to sign an informed consent form which states in detail that you understand the risks and benefits of your child's surgery.
Blood Transfusions in Children
If your child's doctor decides that your child needs blood or blood products, he or she will explain the reasons for the transfusion.

Preparing a Child for Surgery

Preparing the Infant for Surgery
It's important to keep your baby's routine the same before the day of surgery. Make sure you, your baby, and your family are well rested.
Preparing the Toddler for Surgery
Read books to your toddler about going to the hospital. Keep any explanations simple and be careful of the words you use.
Preparing the Preschooler for Surgery
One of the major fears preschoolers have is fear of the unknown. Tell your child about the surgery several days before the procedure and perhaps even visit the hospital for a tour.
Preparing the School-Aged Child for Surgery
Have your child explain back to you what is going to happen in the hospital. School-aged children sometimes will listen carefully, but not understand all that was said.
Preparing the Teenager for Surgery
Allow your teen to be part of the decision-making process. Encourage him or her to make a list of questions to ask the doctors and nurses.
Preparing Siblings for Surgery
When your child goes to the hospital, brothers and sisters may feel afraid, worried, or confused. They are often afraid simply because they do not know what to expect, and they may imagine the worst.
Surgery and the Breastfeeding Infant
If your baby requires surgery, you may feel helpless. But there’s something you can do to make the experience a little less traumatic: breastfeed. Not only is it comforting for your baby, but nursing will provide the most nutritious and easily digestible food for a healing body.
When Your Baby Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery
Talk with your baby’s health care provider about being present as much as possible for the test or procedure. Child development experts say it’s best to keep to a minimum the amount of time your child is separated from you at this age.
When Your Toddler or Preschooler Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery
Your toddler or preschooler is able to grasp on some level what is going on if you keep explanations simple and short.
When Your School-Aged Child Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery
By age 7 or 8, school-aged children are starting to develop coping skills as they think more logically and begin to understand cause and effect—if this happens, then that may happen. This way of thinking helps them find ways to cope with scary or stressful experiences.
When Your Teen Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery
During the adolescent years, abstract thinking begins and teens can fully understand how parts of the body function, the medical problem he or she is experiencing, and the reason for the test, procedure, or surgery.

Surgery and Intraoperative Care

The Day of Surgery
Before coming to the hospital, remove any watches, necklaces, or earrings that your child wears and leave them at home so they are not misplaced.
The Operating Room
Your child will need to know that people in the operating room will be wearing surgical clothes to help prevent germs from infecting the surgical incision.
The Surgical Team for Children
Most surgical teams include a surgeon, an anesthesiologist, a nurse anesthetist, and an operating room nurse. The number of team members differs depending on the type of surgery performed.
Types of Anesthesia
During surgery, your child will be given some form of anesthesia—medication given to relieve pain and sensation.

Types of Surgery

Hypospadias
Hypospadias is a disorder in newborn boys in which the opening of the urethra is not located at the tip of the penis.
Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy
Symptoms of tonsillitis vary greatly depending on the cause of the infection, and can occur either suddenly or gradually.
Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
The purpose of endoscopic sinus surgery is to open the passages of the sinuses allowing for proper drainage to the nose.
Plastic Surgery Is Up Among Youths
Plastic surgery is not for every youth. For some procedures, the child must reach milestones in age, growth and physical maturity.
Appendicitis
Detailed information on appendicitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Inguinal Hernia in Children
Detailed information on inguinal hernia, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Pediatric Appendectomy
A pediatric appendectomy is a surgery that's performed to remove a child's appendix. The appendix is a small pouch that's attached to the large intestine on the lower right side of the abdomen.
Cecostomy
Cecostomy is a fairly new surgical procedure that is used to clear the bowels of fecal matter. It’s typically used for children with fecal incontinence related to severe disorders.
PEG Tube Placement
A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is a feeding tube that is surgically placed through your abdomen into your stomach.
Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy
A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the tonsils. Tonsils are small, round glands in the back of the mouth, on the sides of the throat.
Ear Tube Insertion
During an ear tube insertion, a doctor places a tiny tube into the eardrum to let fluid escape from the middle ear. It also lets air enter the middle ear through the eardrum.

Post-operative Care

Recovery Room/Post-Anesthesia Care Unit
Once surgery has been completed, your child will be brought to the recovery room, also called the post-anesthesia care unit.
Intensive Care
Intensive care is needed for children who have had certain types of major surgery: heart operations, organ transplants, or neurosurgery.
Discomforts and Complications After Surgery
Common discomforts after surgery include nausea and vomiting, soreness in the throat, and restlessness or sleeplessness.
Pain Control
If your child has moderate to severe pain, he or she may receive narcotics during and after surgery. If your child is in the ICU after surgery, he or she may receive sedatives along with pain medications.
Play Therapy
Play therapy is used to help children understand and cope with illness, surgery, hospitalization, treatments, and procedures.
Discharge from the Hospital
Even after minor surgery, some children will remain in the hospital overnight for observation and to receive medications to help with pain or to prevent infection.
Protect Your Child from Medical Errors
A medical error can occur when something that was planned for medical care doesn't work, or when the wrong plan was used in the first place.

Childhood Illnesses

Eye and Ear Conditions

Blocked Tear Duct (Dacryostenosis)
A blocked tear duct can occur in one or both eyes. The blockage may be present at all times, or it may come and go.
Conjunctivitis (Newborn/Childhood)
Conjunctivitis, or pink eye, is a very common problem in children. Large outbreaks of conjunctivitis are often seen in day-care settings and schools.
Keratitis
Keratitis is an inflammation or infection of the cornea of the eye. It is a medical emergency because it can lead to blindness if not treated.
Stye (Hordeolum)
A stye is caused by an infection in the oil-producing or sweat glands in the eyelid. The infection is usually caused by bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus.
Otitis Media (Middle Ear Infection)
Otitis media is inflammation in the middle ear. Otitis media can occur as a result of a cold, sore throat, or respiratory infection.
Otitis Externa (Swimmer's Ear)
Swimmer's ear is caused by fungi or bacteria that are encouraged to grow because of water that remains trapped in the ear canal after swimming.

Allergies, Asthma, Respiratory Problems

Allergic Rhinitis
Pollen, dust mites, mold, and animal dander are the most common causes of allergic rhinitis.
Egg Allergy Diet for Children
Parents of children with egg sensitivity may not be aware of the variety of food products that contain eggs. That's why it's important to carefully read food labels.
Milk Allergy Diet for Children
The words "non-dairy" on a product label mean that it does not contain butter, cream, or milk—but it could still contain other types of milk products.
Peanut Allergy Diet for Children
Ethnic foods, commercially prepared baked goods, and candy can be cross-contaminated with peanuts, because peanuts are frequently used in these types of foods.
Asthma and Children
How asthma will affect a child throughout his/her lifetime varies, depending on the child.
Croup
Croup is most common in children younger than 5, with the peak age around 2. Croup occurs most often in winter.
Influenza (Flu) in Children
Influenza is a highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory system. It's one of the most severe illnesses of the winter season, affecting up to 20 percent of Americans each year.
Tonsillitis
Detailed information on tonsillitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment
Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy
Symptoms of tonsillitis vary greatly depending on the cause of the infection, and can occur either suddenly or gradually.
Upper Respiratory Infection (URI or Common Cold)
The common cold is one of the most common illnesses, leading to more doctor visits and absences from school each year than any other illness.
Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in Children
Detailed information on pharyngitis and tonsillitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Food Allergies in Children
Detailed information on food allergy, including cause, symptoms, and treatment
Your Child's Asthma and Ozone
Children with asthma may experience more severe symptoms than adults or experience symptoms at lower ozone concentrations. They are also more likely to experience an asthma attack when ozone levels are high.

Skin Conditions

Acne in Children
Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. With acne, the sebaceous glands are clogged, which leads to pimples and cysts.
Treating Teen Acne
Just about every teen will find at least one blackhead or whitehead on his or her skin by age 17, and some teens will develop more severe acne, which can leave scarring if not treated.
Fifth Disease
Fifth disease is caused by the human parvovirus. It is most prevalent in the winter and spring and is usually seen in school-aged children.
Allergens: Poison Ivy/Poison Oak/Poison Sumac
Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac can all cause bumps and blisters that itch. Teach your children what these plants look like and how to avoid them.
Warts in Children
Detailed information on the most common types of warts, including foot warts, flat warts, genital warts, and filiform warts
Contact Dermatitis
Detailed information on contact dermatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Impetigo
Detailed information on impetigo, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Birthmarks
Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains
Lice
Detailed information on lice, including diagnosis and treatment
Sunburn
Detailed information sunburn, including symptoms and treatment

Diabetes and Blood Pressure Problems

Overview of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes is a chronic disease that involves the regulation of blood sugar and occurs in two different forms, type 1 and type 2.
Type 1 Diabetes in Children
Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can start at any age.
Type 2 Diabetes in Children
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to produce enough, or to properly use, insulin.
Teens and Diabetes
During adolescence, blood sugar levels become harder to control, resulting in levels that swing from too low to too high.
High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents
Detailed information on high blood pressure, also called hypertension, including symptoms, diagnostic, and treatment information
Hypertension: Children Can Have It, Too
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, isn't limited to those 18 and older.
Diagnosing and Evaluating Heart Disease in Children
Detailed information on diagnosing and evaluating heart disease in children

Bone Conditions

Osgood-Schlatter Disease
Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition or injury of the knee that causes pain and swelling below the knee area over the shin bone.
Fractures in Children
Fractures occur when more force is applied to the bone than the bone can absorb. Bones are weakest when they are twisted.
Kyphosis
Kyphosis is a forward curvature of the spine. It is a type of spinal deformity and should not be confused with poor posture.
Lordosis
A spine affected by lordosis has a curve in the vertebrae in the lower back area, giving the child a "swayback" appearance.
Scoliosis in Children
Detailed information on scoliosis, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
Detailed information on slipped capital femoral epiphysis, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Sever’s Disease
Children are at greatest risk of developing Sever’s disease when they have reached the early part of a growth spurt in early puberty.

Infectious Diseases

Varicella (Chickenpox)
Chickenpox is a very common childhood disease. It is usually mild, but can be serious, especially in young infants and adults.
Hepatitis in Children
Six main types of the hepatitis virus that have been identified: A, B, C, D, E, and G. Vaccination can protect children from several forms of hepatitis.
Infectious Mononucleosis in Teens and Young Adults
Infectious mononucleosis is caused by either the Epstein-Barr virus or the cytomegalovirus, both of which are members of the herpes simplex virus family.
Meningitis in Children
Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacteria or viruses are the more common causes.
Mumps
Mumps is a highly contagious viral illness that usually occurs in childhood. It is no longer common in the United States because children are now vaccinated against it.
Tetanus in Children
Tetanus is an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system, caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium, which usually enters the body through an open wound.
Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
Whooping cough, or pertussis, mainly affects infants and young children. It is characterized by intense coughing spells that end with a characteristic whoop as air is inhaled.
Roseola
Detailed information on roseola, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Rubeola (Measles)
Detailed information on measles, including symptoms, complications, prevention, and treatment
Scarlet Fever
Detailed information on scarlet fever, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Tuberculosis (TB) in Children
Detailed information on tuberculosis, including risks, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment

Medications

Beware of Supplements for Kids
Firms are advertising herbs and supplements as remedies for everything from colds and asthma to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but dietary supplements and herbal mixtures aimed at children may be a waste of money -- and a threat to their health.
Treat Children's OTC Drugs With Care
Over-the-counter drugs can help ease a child's aches and pains, but you should know a few things before you pop open a bottle.
What to Look for on OTC Drug Labels
Always read the label. All OTC medicine labels have detailed usage and warning information to help you choose and use the products.